What Is Development?


The term development describes the growth, progress or positive change that accompanies improvement in the social, economic and environmental conditions in an area. Development aims at raising the standard of living through the eradication of poverty, hunger and disease and through employment and sustainable income opportunities. It also seeks to promote the democratisation of the political process and guarantee basic human rights to all people.

A number of different theories of development have been proposed. Some, such as those based on biological systems (e.g. Gregor Mendel and the laws of genetics) and markets (Douglas North), view development as a series of historical accidents, with more favourable innovations tending to survive and flourish and less favourable ones dying out. Others, such as lifespan theorists and behaviourists (Vygotsky and information processing theory) view human development as a continuous process.

Other theorists believe that cultural factors are crucial to understanding development, especially the changes that occur throughout life. Erikson’s model, for example, suggests that successful development depends on navigating through the psychosocial crises that occur during the lifetime – which are usually referred to as stages – and that each stage has its own developmental task.

A more recent approach, referred to as “human scale development”, calls for the state to give up its traditional paternalistic and welfarist role in favour of a facilitative one, acting as a catalyst in enacting and consolidating people’s solutions flowing from below. It is an inclusive and holistic approach that takes into account the need to nurture diversity rather than threaten it, to develop processes of economic decentralisation and encourage rather than repress emerging social movements that reflect the needs of civil society for autonomy and space.

The Basics of Law


Law is the set of rules created in a society to control behavior, enforce contracts, and ensure social justice. It is the subject of many academic fields including legal history, philosophy, sociology, economic analysis and political science. Law also provides the foundation for the legal profession, government and a variety of business enterprises.

Law consists of both statutes and case law. Statutes are created through the legislative process, while case law arises from the decisions of judges and barristers. In “common law” systems, the decisions of higher courts bind lower courts through the doctrine of stare decisis. However, judges in a higher court may depart from a previous decision in a similar case where the facts and law are different.

The legal system varies from country to country. For example, civil law jurisdictions (like the United States and France) rely heavily on precedent while common law jurisdictions such as England and Australia rely more on detailed judicial opinions. Regardless of the system, law is always based on human interpretation and therefore cannot be empirically verified, as is true of most scientific laws such as gravity or the law of supply and demand.

The law’s role in regulating and restricting behavior raises important and complex issues of equality and fairness. See the articles on legal profession; legal education; legal ethics and legal philosophy for further discussion. The article on the legal system covers civil, criminal, evidence and bankruptcy procedures. Other articles deal with specific areas of the law such as ad hoc tribunals; arbitration; discovery; intellectual property law; medical jurisprudence; and tort law.

Home Improvement Trends for 2011

Home improvement

Home improvement is big business, and it’s not just for DIYers with a hammer. Whether you’re upgrading for resale or simply because, there are many smart ways to add value to your property.

But before you swing that sledgehammer, make sure you understand how much popular projects cost and what returns you can expect on your investment. And remember that buyer preferences vary from market to market, so it’s best to focus on renovations that are popular in your area.

The categories that are surging the most in terms of renovations this year are work on the outside of a house, with an almost threefold increase in the number of people building decks and putting up fences. Another category that’s growing is fixing or replacing windows, as well as adding insulation. Those types of improvements are viewed as good investments by potential buyers, who are often concerned about high energy bills.

However, it’s important to note that not all home improvement projects increase a house’s value, and some even decrease it. To avoid making costly mistakes that could turn off a buyer, it’s a good idea to consult with a real estate professional to get their thoughts on the most effective way to improve your home.

When it comes to financing home renovations, experts recommend that you use cash where possible and only borrow money if it won’t jeopardize your ability to repay the debt in the future. If you do need to borrow, an unsecured personal loan is often a better choice than credit card debt, as it has a lower interest rate and won’t damage your creditworthiness as significantly.

What is a Casino?


A casino is a facility for certain types of gambling. It is also a place to spend time with friends and family, enjoy drinks or meals, and have a chance to win money. Casinos offer slot machines, blackjack, roulette, baccarat, craps, and other games of chance. They are often located in luxurious hotel and resort complexes.

In the United States, the largest concentration of casinos is in Las Vegas, followed by Atlantic City and Chicago. In addition, a number of American Indian reservations have casinos. The term casino is also used for gaming establishments in other countries, such as the Casino Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal.

Despite their seamy reputation, casinos are legitimate businesses that earn profits from the gamblers who patronize them. In fact, gambling has a long history and can be traced back to ancient times.

Security is a major concern for casinos. With large amounts of cash changing hands, employees and patrons may be tempted to cheat or steal, either in collusion or independently. Casinos employ a variety of surveillance techniques and other security measures to prevent this.

The word casino derives from the Italian noun casona, meaning “small villa”. In modern usage, a casino is an entertainment venue that offers various gambling options and amenities such as live music and dining. It is a popular destination for tourists and locals alike. In recent years, social casino apps have grown in popularity as publishers experiment with hybrid monetization models that include banner ads, interstitials, playables, and rewarded video.

What to Look for in an Online Casino

online casino

A good online casino offers a lot of games and is accessible to anyone who has a computer and an internet connection. Unlike a land-based casino, you don’t have to worry about having to drive somewhere or getting dressed up before you play. Moreover, there are no minimum stakes in an online casino, which means you can play with a small amount of money and still have fun.

Another thing to look for is a good customer service team. A reliable casino will have representatives available 24/7 and will be able to answer your questions via email, phone, or live chat. They should also be able to help you with any problems that you may experience while playing.

Lastly, you should make sure that the casino you choose accepts your preferred payment methods. Different online casinos have different policies on this issue, and some of them might not accept all of your favorite methods. This is why you should check the terms and conditions of each casino before deciding to join.

In addition, a reputable casino will promote responsible gambling and provide resources to help you control your spending habits. These include self-exclusion options and links to gambling addiction support organisations. You should also avoid playing at an online casino if you’re in an area where gambling is illegal. This is because the casino won’t be obligated to pay out your winnings if it breaks local gambling laws. Furthermore, you could be fined or even sent to jail if you’re caught.

What is a Team Sport?

Team sport

Team sport is any sport that involves multiple people organized into opposing teams which compete and cooperate for entertainment purposes. The most popular team sports are basketball, football, baseball and soccer. These sports have different rules and equipment but all require the cooperation of the team members to play well. The goal is to win the game by scoring more points than the other team. Team sports are also great ways to get exercise and stay healthy. They help improve agility, endurance and hand-eye coordination. They are also a great way to meet new people and make friends.

Although elite team sports generate significant financial wealth and widespread media attention, grass-roots participation rates in many traditional team sports have been declining. Possible explanations include a lack of social engagement in the sport, cost and fear of injury.

This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that, due to the inherent requirement of reconciling competing and cooperating with teammates and training partners in team sports, participants in team sports learn to integrate these demands over time. As a result, team athletes’ cognitive representation of competition should exclude cooperating with other competitors to a lesser extent than individual athletes’.

The results of two experiments supported this hypothesis. In the first experiment, team athletes did not show a carry-over effect of competition in which cooperating with uninvolved others is reduced during a subsequent competitive task. In the second experiment, individual athletes spontaneously reduced information sharing with non-competitors during a competitive prime but not for team athletes.

Understanding Fashion As a Complex Phenomenon


Fashion is about the prevailing modes of clothing, body adornment and lifestyles. It has also been used throughout history as a way of marking and signalling identity. This is because it is easily observed at a glance by others. As a semiotic signifier fashion is constantly changing, and this change occurs for many reasons. Firstly it can be triggered by people who are highly influential and popular with the general public; their clothes and lifestyle become copied and this starts a trend.

Alternatively it can happen because of changes in the economy or society, such as technological developments like the sewing machine that enabled mass production. This led to the formation of large department stores, which offered a wider range of styles and colours than the little dressmakers could offer. In addition, rationing of cloth and haberdashery during World War Two streamlined production methods to allow manufacturers to make garments in a quick, economical and standardised manner.

Fashion is a complex phenomenon, and its rich impact can be seen in the vast landscape of coverage, discussion and study of the subject in media, both popular and academic. Yet, as the recent resurgence of protests like Extinction Rebellion demonstrate, much of this coverage and study tends to reduce fashion to a fetishised set of auratic products presented in bright cellophane wrappers obscuring their human, natural and economic costs. This reductive construction of fashion is problematic because it devalues the importance of these resources while at the same time promoting their consumption and fetishisation.

How to Increase Your Chances of Winning the Lottery


Lottery is a game in which numbers are drawn to determine winners of prize money. It is a popular form of entertainment and is often used to raise funds for charitable causes. It is also known as a painless form of taxation, and it has been used for many important projects, such as building the British Museum and raising funds for the American Revolution.

The odds of winning a lottery jackpot are low, but there are some things you can do to increase your chances of success. For example, playing smaller games with fewer numbers will give you better odds because there are less combinations to choose from. Additionally, choosing numbers that are not close together can help improve your odds because they will be less likely to be chosen by other players. Finally, purchasing more tickets can help improve your odds, but be sure to only spend what you can afford.

While some people believe that playing the same number in consecutive draws will increase their chance of winning, this is not true. Lottery draws are independent events and do not influence each other, so a specific combination will not be more or less likely to appear in subsequent draws.

Some people also believe that choosing unique or uncommon numbers increases their chances of winning the lottery. However, this is not true, as each number has the same chance of being selected. Instead, it is best to play a variety of numbers and avoid numbers that are associated with your birthday or other sentimental items.

The Definition of Religion

Religion is a multifaceted, complex phenomenon. It has walked with mankind since time immemorial and seems to be a fundamental human need. It has shaped and been shaped by society and has always sought to answer some of life’s most difficult questions. Yet it is also a phenomenon that has gotten separated from the world’s most profound issues, a separation that allows it to be reduced to narrow cultural divides.

The study of religion as an object of academic inquiry has developed significantly in the 19th century. The need for a comparative treatment of religious beliefs and practices became apparent as Europeans were introduced to the richness and variety of non-European cultures. Moreover, the Renaissance and the discovery of the Americas stimulated new trends toward more or less systematic compilations of mythological material. The result was the beginning of modern studies of religion.

Scholars have offered many different definitions of religion. Some define it substantively as a set of beliefs and practices that entail worship of an all-powerful deity and participation in religious rituals. Others define it functionally as a way of organizing one’s values and providing orientation in life. Still others use a hybrid of these approaches, such as Durkheim’s, which uses the social function of creating solidarity to define religion and Tillich’s, which offers a philosophical framework for discussing religion based on belief in unusual realities.

A more recent trend has been to critique the stipulative definitions of religion by arguing that they are not only reductive but ethnocentric. In particular, they reduce the discussion of religious ideas and experiences to a question of mental representations or a scientific phenomenology and thus fail to address the complexity of the phenomena under consideration.



Few inventions have had as much of an impact on modern life as the automobile. Its influence is felt in every corner of the world. It has given families the ability to travel together, and reshaped social relationships and work patterns. It has restructured cities and economies around the power of rapid long-distance movement conferred by cars and on the flexible distribution of goods made possible by trucks.


The engine is the heart of the vehicle, and its design is heavily influenced by the car’s intended use. Automobiles designed for off-road use need durable, simple systems capable of withstanding severe overloads and extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, vehicles designed for high-speed limited-access road systems require more passenger comfort options and optimized engine performance.


The lubrication system reduces the friction between moving parts and carries away heat generated by their fast movements. Oil is stored in the crankcase, where it flows by a pump powered by the engine through a series of passages and holes to the moving parts. The oil forms a thin layer between the metal parts, reducing wear and minimizing heat. As the engine moves, the heated oil drains back into the crankcase, where it cools.


The chassis is the skeleton of the vehicle that houses the engine, suspension system, axles, and wheels. Its main functions are to support the weight of the vehicle, provide structural integrity, and provide the foundation for the rest of the car’s systems. It is mainly composed of steel and aluminum, although fiberglass and plastic are sometimes used. Its body is an integral part of the chassis, welded together from stamped components. The body provides the passenger compartment, offers storage space, and protects passengers in the event of an accident.